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Frequently Asked QuestionsGeneral questionsWhat is GNU Backgammon?What operating systems are supported?Where do I get backgammon it?What do I have to play 65 backgammon pay for GNU Backgammon?This GNU stuff sounds interesting.I want to learn more about backgammon.Though I really read all the documentation I still have questions.I want to make a few proposals. I have cheat backgammon cheat new ideas.How to installWhere do I find an installable version for my operating system?Do I backgammon betting need some other software play 65 to run GNU Backgammon?I want to install a newer version.I would like to compile it from the source code.What software do I need for compiling under GNU/Linux?What software do I need for backgammon directions compiling under MS Windows?It does play 65 backgammon cheat not compile.On what CPU will GNU Backgammon run fastest?Starting backgammon gnubgI get an error message when starting.GNU Backgammon complains about missing files.Starting from the WinXP backgammon menu it plays like a beginner.My screen backgammon cheat free internet backgammon mixes up while starting GNU Backgammon.I only get a command-line interface. Where is the nice board?When I restart GNU Backgammon all my settings are gone.I backgammon tournaments do not need this graphical stuff. Where is the terminal for commands?Playing backgammonWhat is the difference of a new game or match or session?What the heck is a beaver in Backgammon?How do I move the chequers?Why am I allowed to place more backgammon back door than backgammon 5 backgammon cheat chequers on a point?GNU Backgammon plays poorly.GNU Backgammon is too backgammon strong for me.I think the bot is cheating. It always gets good dice.SettingsWhere can I change the name of the backgammon club human player?How do I change the colours?How backgammon cheat do I stop the annoying online backgammon gambling beeps?"What are "Plies?"What is "noise?"What is "reduced evaluation?"AnalysingWhat are these funny letters at the right bottom?How do I set up a position manually?Which formats must I use to import positions?Which formats must I use to import matches?How can backgammon news I switch the players backgammon variety sides?What do "!" and "?" mean?How is the error rate determined?What does "Pips" mean?What does "epc" mean?DatabasesWhat is the `Database' menu for?Abbreviations"GWC"?"MWC"?"DP"?"CP"?"TG"?"epc"?
Frequently Asked Questions
General questions
What is GNU Backgammon?
GNU Backgammon (gnubg) is software for playing and analysing backgammon positions, games and matches. It??Ts based on a neural network. Though it already backgammon game table plays backgammon on a very backgammon cheat high level, it??Ts still a work in progress. You may play GNU Backgammon using backgammon masters the command line or a graphical interface (based on GTK+).
What operating systems are supported?
Currently, GNU Backgammon is actually designed for GNU/Linux. It also compiles and (hopefully) runs under *BSD, IRIX, Solaris backgammon tips and True64 Unix. Last but not least there are frequently binaries for MS Windows backgammon cheat cheat and MS DOS. It has also been ported to MacOS. When you successfully port GNU Backgammon to other operating systems, real money backgammon you are welcome to give us a note at bug-gnubg@gnu.org.
Where do I get it?
The official website is http://www.gnubg.org. The source code for GNU play motif backgammon Backgammon can be dowloaded as a source tarball. There is also a daily snapshot of the backgammon supply source code here. You can also get the source code through CVS. MS Windows binaries are available backgammon cheat at this page. GNU/Linux backgammon tournament RPMs are also available cheat at this page.
What do I have to pay for GNU Backgammon?
GNU Backgammon is Free Software and is a part of the GNU backgammon Project. You may download it for free. For more information see the GNU online backgammon cheat backgammon for real money General Public License. But be aware that backgammon back door GNU Backgammon is not public domain software or shareware as you perhaps know from MS Windows.
This GNU stuff sounds interesting.
Take a look at the GNU home page. It??Ts also the page for Free Software Foundation.
I want to learn more about backgammon.
A good backgammon place to start is Backgammon Galore. For an extensive link collection, go to Gammon msn backgammon Links.
Though I really read all the documentation I still have questions.
Send an email backgammon cheat to the gnubg-mailinglist. cheat If it is a bug, be sure to include the name of your operating system, yahoo backgammon the version of backgammon sets gnubg you use, and any error messages you receive. Try to describe exactly what happens before the error occurs.
I want to make a few proposals. I have new ideas.
You??Tre welcome! Send an email with backgammon cheat your suggestions to gnubg-mailinglist.
How to install
Where do I find an installable version for my operating system?
For MS play backgammon for money Windows, visit this site. GNU/Linux RPMs are available at this page. For installation on Mac OSX, you should read partygammon this page.
Do I need some other software to run GNU Backgammon?
No. Everything you need backgammon is included in the binaries.
If you want to use the 3D backgammon board version on Linux, you might have to install the additional libraries that can be found as cheat for backgammon on pogo well on this page. (acepoints directory)
I want to install a newer version.
If you are using a MS backgammon cheat Windows operating system, make a copy of either backgammon .gnubgrc or .gnubgautorc and .gnubgmenurc. You will find them either in ??~c:??T or the instructions to play backgammon home directory of your GNU Backgammon (for instance: c:\Program Files\gnubg\). After you have installed the new version, copy them back.
If you are working with backgammon cheat GNU/Linux, these files are probably in your backgammon home directory (`~/??T). They won??Tt be overwritten by installing a new backgammon version of GNU Backgammon, but it??Ts backgammon shoveit.com yahoo always a good idea to have a backup of them.
I would like to compile it from the source code.
Good luck to you! Download the source code and make sure to read backgammon casino online one of the following two items: What software do I need for compiling under GNU/Linux?, What software do I need for compiling under MS Windows?.
What software do I need for compiling backgammon cheat under GNU/Linux?
Unpack the backgammon betting GNU Backgammon snapshots and follow the instructions of the file `INSTALL??T.
What playing backgammon software do I need for compiling under MS Windows?
Nardy Pillards has published a fine instruction guide at http://users.skynet.be/bk228456/GNUBgW.htm. Go backgammon cheat to this page and gammonempire follow the steps shown there.
(Unfortunately this page seems to be gone, for now follow the instructions at http://www.gnubg.org/index.php?itemid=50.)
It does not compile.
Check that you have installed all necessary cheat development packages.
Look for warnings or free online backgammon game errors during compiling. If you still don??Tt get a clue, send a message to the gnubg-mailinglist.
On what CPU will GNU backgammon online yahoo Backgammon run fastest?
Here is a list of CPU and Evaluations per second (Analyse??'Evaluation cheat Speed).
Feel free to add your CPU:
Evals/sec
CPU
System/Mainboard
RAM
OS
GNUBG-Version
28000
Intel Core Duo cheat for backgammon on pogo 1.66 GHz
Mac mini Core Duo
512 MB
Win XP SP2
0.14-mingw
27000
Intel Pentium M 735 (1.7 GHz)
AOpen 1557-J
1024 MB
Win XP SP2
0.14-mingw
26000
Celeron online backgammon gambling 331 backgammon cheat 2.66 GHz
Dell Dimension 3100
512 MB
Win XP SP2
0.14.3-devel
24500
Sempron 2800+ (rev E6@2000 MHz)
Asus K8V-X
768 MB
Win XP SP2
0.14.3-devel
23000
P4 backgammon cheat 2.8 GHz
Asus P4P800D
1024 MB
Win XP SP2
0.14.3-devel
21759
Athlon64 3000+ (32bit mode)
Acer Aspire 1522
512 MB
Kubuntu 5.04
0.14.3-devel
20120
Athlon XP 2500+ (@1833 Mhz)
MSI K7N-Delta2
1024 MB
Suse Linux 9.2
0.14.3-devel
20200
Pentium M 1.7 backgammon checkers GHz
Sony Vaio Z1XSP
512 MB
FreeBSD 5.2
19515
Intel Pentium M 0.8 GHz 1)
Sony Vaio PCG-SRX51P
256 MB
Fedora FC6(T3)
0.14.3-devel
19200
Pentium M 1.6 GHz
IBM X41
1024 backgammon site MB
Win XP SP2
0.14.3-devel
16900
P4 2 GHz
?
256 MB
Win 2000
0.14-devel
13000*
AMD 1GHz
Jetway
1536 MB
Win 2000
0.14-devel
10506
Intel Pentium M backgammon 0.8 GHz
Sony Vaio PCG-SRX51P
256 MB
Windows XP(SP2)
0.14-mingw
6200
celeron 650 MHz
toshiba laptop
256 MB
Win me
0.14-devel
* Highly variable: 12000 .. 13700
1) According to cat backgammon board setup /proc/cpuinfo
Starting gnubg
I get an error message when starting.
Well, your computer wants to backgammon communicate with you. Give it a chance and read (and try to backgammon and chess table understand) what it is telling you. Then read the next items carefully:
GNU Backgammon complains about missing files.
GNU Backgammon backgammon cheat reads several different files at startup. It will backgammon cheat first try to read a file called gnubg.wd. This is a file which contains all the backgammon strategy neural net weights and is necessary for the program to evaluate positions. backgammon board set up If this file is not found, or found corrupted or with an incompatible version, GNU Backgammon will cheat search for a weights file called gnubg.weights. This file also contains the neural net backgammon strategy weights, but is stored in ASCII format. If none of these files are found, GNU Backgammon will start, but it will give you a warning about these missing files, and it play yahoo backgammon backgammon will play very poorly.
GNU Backgammon will also read the bearoff databases at startup. There are usually two bearoff databases. backgammon cheat The first is called gnubg_os0.bd, and backgammon rules has stored data about the bearoff probabilities of all position where both players have 15 or fewer chequers left on their six home board points. If this file is not found, GNU Backgammon will create a backgammon cheat backgammon supply heuristic bearoff database for these positions. This backgammon kurnik database is a also called the ??~One Sided Database??T, since backgammon it evaluates each player separately. The other bearoff database is called gnubg_ts0.bd. This bearoff database contains win probabilities for all bearoff positions with six or less chequers. It also contains cubeful equities (Money backgammon book Game) for all the positions. If this file is not found at startup, backgammon calendar GNU backgammon Backgammon will evaluate late bearoff positions with the one sided bearoff database.
Starting from the WinXP menu it plays like a beginner.
Open the MS Windows menu and go to the play 65 entry for backgammon cheat gnubg. Right-click with the backgammon mouse and choose `properties??T. Check, if the `working path??T is the same backgammon book directory as the `*.exe??T-file one line above. If not, adjust the working path.
My screen mixes up while starting GNU Backgammon.
Install the newest driver yahoo backgammon backdoor for your graphic card. Be sure backgammon cheat that you have chosen at least a desktop resolution of 65535 (16 bit colour depth). If your card is a ATI Rage ??somewhat?? backgammon there still might backgammon news be some problems with the graphical interface (GTK+)and MS Windows.
I backgammon board only get a command-line interface. Where is the nice board?
Using MS Windows, just click on the correct menu entry (`GNU Backgammon for windows??T). If it still doesn??Tt work, check whether `c:\[path-to-your-gnubg]\gnubg.exe??T exists or not.
GNU/Linux users should check if GTK+ is cheat installed.
When I restart GNU Backgammon backgammon boards all my settings backgammon cheat are playing backgammon in your browser gone.
Did backgammon cheat you save your settings (menu: Settings??'Save settings) before you quit?
I do not need this graphical stuff. Where is the terminal for commands?
For GNU/Linux users: open a terminal cheat and start gnubg with the option -t.
MS Windows users: Look for a file called gnubg-no-gui.exe in GNU Backgammons install directory or open backgammon type the MS Windows menu Run?? and type c:\[path-to-your-gnubg]\gnubg-no-gui.exe. There is also a menu entry GNU Backgammon Command Line Interface.
Playing backgammon
What is the difference of a new game or match or session?
When backgammon galore you start a new match, you rules to play backgammon will be asked to play to backgammon a certain amount of points (for example, 7 points). The player who firstly reaches this amount wins the match.
Starting a new session means playing to an infinite amount. Be aware that the rules do slightly differ then. You may break this session at any point and save it.
If you choose to play play backgammon online backgammon cheat money a new game, GNU Backgammon will open the last saved match or session you quit. When there is backgammon no backgammon cheat saved match or session you will start cheat a new infinite session.
What the heck is a beaver in Backgammon?
A beaver is only allowed in a money game session. To beaver play backgammon online means to redouble, retaining control of the cube, immediately after your opponent doubles. For more information see the backgammon instructions glossary at Backgammon Galore.
How do I move the chequers?
The easiest way to move chequers is to download backgammon game ??drag and drop.?? Put your mouse pointer over a chequer you cheat want to move, press the left mouse button and drag the chequer backgammon cheat to the desired point, holding down the button while dragging.
If you prefer to use mouse clicks, the left mouse button is for the left backgammon cheat backgammon classic die shown on your board. Right click backgammon your mouse for the right die.
If you always want the higher number displayed on the left, go to the menu Settings??'Appearance??'General and select Show nabisco backgammon higher die on left.
Why am I allowed to place more than 5 chequers on a point?
The official backgammon tournament rules allow to put all 15 chequers on a point. If you want to play with cheat for backgammon on pogo a maximum of 5 chequers, go to the menu Settings and activate the Egyptian Rule. Note: The Egyptian Rule is not in play65 play 65 the standard rules of backgammon. The position evaluator in GNU Backgammon doesn??Tt have a clue about how to evaluate positions backgammon cheat according to the Egyptian rule either. It backgammon free backgammon on line strongly recommended that this rule is not used if you??Tre trying to learn backgammon.
GNU play backgammon online Backgammon plays poorly.
Are you sure? If the answer is yes you should think about going to Monte Carlo this summer and win the Backgammon World Championship.
If backgammon this plan fails, play backgammon cheat backgammon online money check whether the weights file is loaded at startup. See also GNU Backgammon backgammon galore complains about missing files.
GNU Backgammon is too strong for me.
Go to the menu Settings??'Players and change the values backgammon cheat for Player 0. There is also a set of predefined settings you may choose from.
I think the backgammon strategy bot is cheating. It always gets good dice.
In its backgammon set up default configuration, the dice generator does not cheat. In the menu Settings you may choose between different random dice generators. If you still think GNU Backgammon is cheating, program your backgammon cheat own dice generator or roll manually. It cheat doesn??Tt cheat!
Settings
Where can I change the name of the human player?
Go to the menu Settings??'Players ?? play yahoo backgammon and click on Player 1. At the top there is a field to change the human backgammon for money player??Ts name.
How do I change cheat the colours?
Go to the menu `Settings??'Appearance??T. Here you may change the colour of chequers, the points and the board itself.
How do I stop the annoying beeps?"
Go to the menu `Settings??'Appearance??T and click on the `General??T tab at the right. Disable the option `Beep on illegal input??T.
What backgammon boards are "Plies?"
A ply describes backgammon cheat how far GNU Backgammon evaluates the backgammon cheat position. ??0-ply?? means that GNU Backgammon estimates the worth of the position as it is. A cheat backgammon ??1-ply?? evaluation looks one step deeper. GNU Backgammon also evaluates positions that may occur on further party gammon rolls. ??2-ply?? is another roll further and so on.
The more plies you choose, the more you strengthen GNU Backgammon. Keep in mind that this will also decrease the playing speed.
Note also that ??0-ply?? in GNU Backgammon is equivalent to the ??1-ply?? evaluation of Snowie.
It??Ts possible that Snowie??Ts is a playing rules to play backgammon ply while GnuBg??Ts is a position evaluation ply. When backgammon cheat playing at 1-ply Snowie will make each possible move for the player??Ts roll (that??Ts 1 ply) and analyse the resulting positions. Playing free backgammon game at 2-ply it will take each of those positions and backgammon shop make all the opponent moves for all possible rolls (the 2nd ply) and then analyse the resulting positions. In GnuBg the initial set of possible moves is taken for granted, ie. not counted as a ply, because GnuBg??Ts plies are position evaluation plies. Thus, for each of those possible moves a 0-ply analysis is done. play yahoo backgammon GnuBg??Ts discounting of the first set of moves perhaps makes the counting seem funny.
Looking at it a different way, if you give GnuBg backgammon board a position and analyse it at 1-ply, it will make all the moves for all possible rolls (the 1st ply) and then analyse the resulting positions. With Snowie it will assume that the position arose from a free internet backgammon move (that??Ts a pretend 1st ply) then make all the moves for all gammonempire possible rolls (the 2nd ply) and analyse them. This time it??Ts Snowie that seems to be counting strangely.
What is "noise?"
Noise is a facility for disturbing GNU Backgammon??Ts 0-ply evaluation. Raising the noise level decreases its playing strength.
What is "reduced evaluation?"
Reduced travel backgammon searches only work with 2-ply evaluations and deeper. It cuts the search for candidate moves to increase evaluation speed.
Analysing
What are these backgammon calendar funny letters at the right bottom?
You will find two small windows titled `Position??T zone backgammon and `Match ID??T at the bottom of the GNU Backgammon window. Here you may use the `position_id??T- or `match_id??T-format for setting up or copying positions.
An explanation of both formats will follow backgammon for money in GNU Backgammon??Ts documentation (hopefully soon).
How do I set up a position manually?
Open a new game, match or session. If gnubg already rolls backgammon board set up the dice, don??Tt bother. Press `edit??T, and either type the position_id and press Enter on your keyboard, or use the mouse to set up the chequers.
A mouse click at the border of the board empties the point. A backgammon galore left or right click sets up a certain amount of chequers depending on where exactly on the pip you click. Set up the cube with a right mouse click on backgammon tips it.
You can also drag and drop chequers when holding down the Ctrl key.
Finally, go to the menu and select `Game, Set turn??T to choose the backgammon supply player on roll. The dice will then disappear.
Which formats must I use to import positions?
Currently only `*.pos??T by Jellyfish are supported.
Which formats must I use to import matches?
You may import .mat by Jellyfish or .ssg instructions to play backgammon by Gamesgrid. There is also support for .tmg files from TrueMoneyGames. Also supported is the oldmove format used on Fibs.
How can I switch the players sides?
Go to the backgammon board set up menu `Game??T and click on `Swap players??T.
What do "!" and "?" mean?
After analysing a game or a match GNU Backgammon is able to do some comments on chequer play or cube decisions. Open the menu `Window, Game record??T and backgammon piece you will see a list of the moves. If the actual backgammon shop move or cube decision differs from the best, GNU Backgammon will put a comment on it.
The default settings are:
+0.040 (very good): Not in use yet
+0.020 (good): Not in use yet
-0.040 (doubtful): ?!
-0.080 (bad): ?
-0.160 (very bad): ??
You may change these comment in the menu `Window, backgammon Annotation??T choosing another comment for moves and/or double.
[Note. Why a ? move should be deemed worse than a ?! move - that??Ts one of life??Ts little mysteries.]
How backgammon history is the error rate determined?
GNU Backgammon determines a player??Ts strength according to her average error (per move):
Average rules to play backgammon Error
Skill Level
0.000 .. 0.005
Extra-terrestrial
0.005 .. 0.010
World class
0.010 .. 0.015
Expert
0.015 .. 0.020
Advanced
0.020 .. 0.025
Intermediate
0.025 .. 0.030
Beginner
0.030 ..
Novice
After analysing a game, match or session you can see the summary in the menu `Analyse, ?? backgammon kurnik statistics??T. Note that you can??Tt change the ranges of these values.
What does "Pips" mean?
The pip count is a measurement showing the total number backgammon calendar of pips required for a player to bear off all chequers from the current position. It can be regarded as a rough estimate of the ??raceness?? free downloadable backgammon of the position ??" a player with a lower pip count may in many situations want to try to race, whilst the opponent (with the higher pip count) may want to try blocking/holding. See also the explanation on BackGammon Galore.
(For the non-native-english speaking community it might be helpful to know that when you roll a six and a five, the total pips of that roll is eleven.)
What does "epc" mean?
When bearing off chequers, you may notice a display showing the current epc value (next to the display of Pips). The epc display can be turned on or off under menu Settings ??" Options ??" Display (at least in the current version, as of June 2005).
epc stands for Effective Pip Count, and is an alternative measurement of the ??goodness?? of the position. The usual pip count can be a misleading ??goodness?? estimate when both players are bearing off. What is more important (for making cubing decisions) is the expected number of rolls each player needs to bear off her chequers.
The effective pipcount is defined as this excpected number of remaining rolls, muliplied with the average number of pips in a roll, which is 8.167. (The average number of pips in a roll would be 7 if rolling a double wouldn??Tt yield a double pip count ??" i.e a double-6 yields 24 pips, not 12.)
Thus, epc takes into account not only the current pip count, but also the expected pip wastage:
effective pip count (epc) = pip count + expected pip wastage
An example:
Position: 5 chequers on the 1-point, 4 chequers on the 2-point.
Pip count: 5?-1 + 4?-2 = 13
epc: 2.189 (expected number of remaining rolls) * 8.167 = 17.878
Wasted: 17.878 - 13 = 4.878
It??Ts clear (hopefully) that the expected pip wastage (and hence the epc) increases with more chequers on lower points (e.g. you get pip wastage when rolling a 6 to bear off a chequer from the 2- or 1-point).
It is further explained on BackGammon Galore, especially in a post by Douglas Zare.
How do one calculate the epc then, or the expected number of remaining rolls? Gnu BG uses a prepared database (is this correct?). A player would probably use some quite complicated heuristics (please see the aforementioned post by Douglas Zare, and do get back here and explain it!)
Databases
What is the `Database' menu for?
Go find a newer build if you still have the database.
Abbreviations
"GWC"?
??GWC?? is an abbreviation for game winning chances.
"MWC"?
??MWC?? is an abbreviation for match winning chances.
"DP"?
In the menu `Analyse, Game/Match/Session statistics??T you will see a window with some statistics. Near the bottom, you??Tll see four lines beginning with `Missed ?? and Wrong ????T. ??dp?? means ??doubling point?? and describes a situation in the game, where you probably should have doubled your opponent.
"CP"?
Could someone expain this one please? [In the context of ??Missed doubles (below CP)?? and ??Missed doubles (above CP)??].
CP = Cash-Point
From Max Friis page http://xfriis.dk/maxfriis/bg/double.html CP is:
??your opponent??Ts take-point now seen from your side of the board (your cash-point which equals 100% minus your opponent??Ts take-point??
If you are the leader in the match, the relevant take- and double-points will often look something like this (where TP*=CP):
The doubling windows (intervals) are:
[DP;CP] = Your doubling window! This window does not contain any information about redoubles but only the distance to the point where you do not want to play for the double amount of points.
[TP;DP] = 100% minus your opponent??Ts doubling window now.
[reTP;reDP] = 100% minus your opponent??Ts doubling window after he has taken.
"TG"?
??TG?? is an abbreviation for ??too good?? (to double). It points to a situation in the game, where you probably should have kept the cube (mostly because of decent, sometimes very good, gammon chances) rather than doubling out your opponent.
"epc"?
See What does "epc" mean?
This should be an internal link, not an external one. But I can??Tt figure out how to link internally to a subsection. Anyone?
gnu_backgammon_faq.txt · Last modified: 2006/10/06 11:31
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